Perspectives of Nanoparticles in Male Infertility: Evidence for Induced Abnormalities in Sperm Production.


Iftikhar M(1), Noureen A(2), Uzair M(3), Jabeen F(1), Abdel Daim M(4)(5), Cappello T(6).
Author information:
(1)Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.
(2)Department of Biology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.
(3)School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.
(4)Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
(5)Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt.
(6)Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy.


Advancement in the field of nanotechnology has prompted the need to elucidate the deleterious effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on reproductive health. Many studies have reported on the health safety issues related to NPs by investigating their exposure routes, deposition and toxic effects on different primary and secondary organs but few studies have focused on NPs' deposition in reproductive organs. Noteworthy, even fewer studies have dealt with the toxic effects of NPs on reproductive indices and sperm parameters (such as sperm number, motility and morphology) by evaluating, for instance, the histopathology of seminiferous tubules and testosterone levels. To date, the research suggests that NPs can easily cross the blood testes barrier and, after accumulation in the testis, induce adverse effects on spermatogenesis. This review aims to summarize the available literature on the risks induced by NPs on the male reproductive system.