Photochemical and Pharmacokinetic Characterization of Orally Administered Chemicals to Evaluate Phototoxic Risk.


Department of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]


This study aimed to verify the applicability of a proposed photosafety screening system based on a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and a cassette-dosing pharmacokinetic (PK) study to chemicals with wide structural diversity. The orally taken chemicals, erythromycin, gatifloxacin, 8-methoxypsoralen (MOP), pirfenidone (PFD), trifluoperazine (TFP), and voriconazole (VRZ), were selected as test compounds. The ROS assay was conducted to evaluate their photoreactivity, and all test compounds excluding erythromycin generated significant ROS under simulated sunlight exposure. According to the ROS data, TFP had potent photoreactivity, and the photoreactivity of 4 other compounds was judged to be moderate. Regarding the oral cassette-dosing PK test in rats, the skin deposition of MOP, PFD, and VRZ was relatively high, and gatifloxacin and TFP exhibited moderate skin deposition properties. Based on the ROS and PK data of test compounds, PFD and TFP were judged to be potent phototoxic compounds, and MOP and VRZ were deduced to have phototoxic risk. The predicted phototoxic risk of test compounds by proposed screening was mostly in agreement with observed in vivo phototoxicity in the rat skin. The proposed screening system could provide reliable photosafety information on orally administered compounds with wide structural diversity.


cassette-dosing pharmacokinetic study,photosafety assessment,phototoxicity,reactive oxygen species,structural diversity,