Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Rd, Bangkok, Thailand; Excellent Center for Drug Discovery (ECDD), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Rd, Bangkok, Thailand; Center for Neuroscience, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Rd, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address: [Email]
Glioblastoma is the most common and the most malignant form of brain tumor. This devastating tumor results in death within a year after diagnosis. Although the tumor mass can be surgically removed, glioma cells invade other areas in the brain leading to tumor recurrence and poor prognosis. Therefore, new agents that can overcome cancer cell invasion are urgently required. Phyllanthus taxodiifolius Beille (P. taxodiifolius), has been reported to have potent anti-cancer activities. However, its effects on glioblastoma cells and its underlying mechanisms have never been revealed. Here we investigated the effect and underlying mechanisms of P. taxodiifolius extract on aggressive properties of the glioblastoma, including adhesion, migration, and invasion. P. taxodiifolius extract disrupted adhesion, delayed migration and interfered with the invasion of glioblastoma cells. In addition, the extract suppressed microtubule dynamics as shown by live imaging of a microtubule plus tip protein and decreased focal adhesion by decreasing focal adhesion kinase activity. Our study is the first evidence showing that P. taxodiifolius extract suppresses invasive properties of glioblastoma cells by disrupting microtubule structure and interfering with microtubule dynamics, suggesting the possibility to further develop P. taxodiifolius and its bioactive compounds as an anti-cancer drug targeting microtubules in glioblastoma.