Physiological and Molecular Responses to Acid Rain Stress in Plants and the Impact of Melatonin, Glutathione and Silicon in the Amendment of Plant Acid Rain Stress.

Affiliation

Debnath B(1)(2), Sikdar A(3), Islam S(2), Hasan K(4), Li M(1), Qiu D(1).
Author information:
(1)College of Horticulture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.
(2)Department of Horticulture, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh.
(3)Department of Agroforestry and Environmental Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh.
(4)Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh.

Abstract

Air pollution has been a long-term problem, especially in urban areas, that eventually accelerates the formation of acid rain (AR), but recently it has emerged as a serious environmental issue worldwide owing to industrial and economic growth, and it is also considered a major abiotic stress to agriculture. Evidence showed that AR exerts harmful effects in plants, especially on growth, photosynthetic activities, antioxidant activities and molecular changes. Effectiveness of several bio-regulators has been tested so far to arbitrate various physiological, biochemical and molecular processes in plants under different diverse sorts of environmental stresses. In the current review, we showed that silicon (tetravalent metalloid and semi-conductor), glutathione (free thiol tripeptide) and melatonin (an indoleamine low molecular weight molecule) act as influential growth regulators, bio-stimulators and antioxidants, which improve plant growth potential, photosynthesis spontaneity, redox-balance and the antioxidant defense system through quenching of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly and/or indirectly under AR stress conditions. However, earlier research findings, together with current progresses, would facilitate the future research advancements as well as the adoption of new approaches in attenuating the consequence of AR stress on crops, and might have prospective repercussions in escalating crop farming where AR is a restraining factor.