Phyto-fabrication, purification, characterisation, optimisation, and biological competence of nano-silver.


Ahmad B(1), Shireen F(1), Rauf A(2), Shariati MA(3), Bashir S(4), Patel S(5), Khan A(6), Rebezov M(3)(7)(8), Khan MU(9)(10), Mubarak MS(11), Zhang H(12).
Author information:
(1)Center of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
(2)Department of Chemistry, University of Swabi, Swabi, Anbar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
(3)K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management
(The First Cossack University), Moscow, Russian Federation.
(4)Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
(5)Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.
(6)Oman Medicinal Plants and Marine Products, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman.
(7)V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation.
(8)A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russian Federation.
(9)Bioproducts Sciences and Engineering Laboratory
(BSEL), Washington State University, Richland, Wasington, USA.
(10)Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
(11)Department of Chemistry, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
(12)Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, China.


Published studies indicate that virtually any kind of botanical material can be exploited to make biocompatible, safe, and cost-effective silver nanoparticles. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that plants possess active bio-ingredients that function as powerful reducing and coating agents for Ag+. In this respect, a phytomediation method provides favourable monodisperse, crystalline, and spherical particles that can be easily purified by ultra-centrifugation. However, the characteristics of the particles depend on the reaction conditions. Optimal reaction conditions observed in different experiments were 70-95 °C and pH 5.5-8.0. Green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have remarkable physical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. Research findings revealed the versatility of silver particles, ranging from exploitation in topical antimicrobial ointments to in vivo prosthetic/organ implants. Advances in research on biogenic silver nanoparticles have led to the development of sophisticated optical and electronic materials with improved efficiency in a compact configuration. So far, eco-toxicity of these nanoparticles is a big challenge, and no reliable method to improve the toxicity has been reported. Therefore, there is a need for reliable models to evaluate the effect of these nanoparticles on living organisms.