Several lines of evidence point out the relevance of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome as a pivotal player in the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric diseases (i.e., Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and major depressive disorder), metabolic disorders (i.e., obesity and type 2 diabetes) and chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., intestinal inflammation, arthritis, and gout). Intensive research efforts are being made to achieve an integrated view about the pathophysiological role of NLRP3 inflammasome pathways in such disorders. Evidence is also emerging that the pharmacological modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by phytochemicals could represent a promising molecular target for the therapeutic management of neurological, psychiatric, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases. The present review article has been intended to provide an integrated and critical overview of the available clinical and experimental evidence about the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathophysiology of neurological, psychiatric, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, including PD, AD, MS, depression, obesity, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, and intestinal inflammation. Special attention has been paid to highlight and critically discuss current scientific evidence on the effects of phytochemicals on NLRP3 inflammasome pathways and their potential in counteracting central neuroinflammation, metabolic alterations, and immune/inflammatory responses in such diseases.