Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) results from amyloid-β deposition in the cerebrovasculature. It is frequently accompanied by Alzheimer's disease and causes dementia. We recently demonstrated that in a mouse model of CAA, taxifolin improved cerebral blood flow, promoted amyloid-β removal from the brain, and prevented cognitive dysfunction when administered orally. Here we showed that taxifolin inhibited the intracerebral production of amyloid-β through suppressing the ApoE-ERK1/2-amyloid-β precursor protein axis, despite the low permeability of the blood-brain barrier to taxifolin. Higher expression levels of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 (TREM2) were associated with the exacerbation of inflammation in the brain. Taxifolin suppressed inflammation, alleviating the accumulation of TREM2-expressing cells in the brain. It also mitigated glutamate levels and oxidative tissue damage and reduced brain levels of active caspases, indicative of apoptotic cell death. Thus, the oral administration of taxifolin had intracerebral pleiotropic neuroprotective effects on CAA through suppressing amyloid-β production and beneficially modulating proinflammatory microglial phenotypes.