Plumula Nelumbinis: A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and safety.

Affiliation

Chen S(1), Li X(1), Wu J(1), Li J(1), Xiao M(1), Yang Y(1), Liu Z(1), Cheng Y(2).
Author information:
(1)Joint Laboratory for Translational Cancer Research of Chinese Medicine of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, China.
(2)Joint Laboratory for Translational Cancer Research of Chinese Medicine of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plumula Nelumbinis, the green embryo of the mature seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, has a medical history of over 400 years. It is widely used for clearing the heart and heat, calming the mind, and promoting astringent essence and hemostasis in traditional Chinese medicine. Moreover, it usually dual use as food and medicine. This review aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Plumula Nelumbinis by summarizing its botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and safety. METHODS: This review summarized published studies on Plumula Nelumbinis in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and literature databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Baidu Scholar, Wiley and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), and limits the different research articles in botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and safety about Plumula Nelumbinis. RESULTS: Plumula Nelumbinis is used to treat hypertension, arrhythmia, severe aplastic anemia, insomnia, encephalopathy and gynecological disease in traditional Chinese medicine and clinical studies. More than 130 chemicals have been isolated and identified from Plumula Nelumbinis, including alkaloids, flavonoids, polysaccharides and volatile oil. In addition, pharmacological effects, such as protective effects against cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, lung and kidney injury, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, were also evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, the potential signaling pathways regulated by Plumula Nelumbinis in cardiovascular and neurological diseases and perspectives on Plumula Nelumbinis research were discussed. CONCLUSION: Plumula Nelumbinis, a commonly used Chinese medicine, has a variety of traditional and modern therapeutic uses. Some traditional uses, especially the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases, have been verified by pharmacological investigation. However, the pharmacological molecular mechanisms, pharmacokinetics and toxicology of Plumula Nelumbinis are still incomplete. In the future, a series of systematic studies on active compounds identification, pharmacological mechanism clarification, quality and safety evaluation are necessary.