The biodiversity of mushrooms Pleurotus spp. is impressive due to its complexity and diversity related to the composition of chemical structures such as polysaccharides, glycoproteins and secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids and betalains. Recent studies of polysaccharides and their structural elucidation have helped to direct research and development of technologies related to pharmacological action, production of bioactive foods and application of new, more sophisticated extraction tools. The diversity of bioactivities related to these biopolymers, their mechanisms and routes of action are constant focus of researches. The elucidation of bioactivities has helped to formulate new vaccines and targeted drugs. In this context, in terms of polysaccharides and the diversity of mushrooms Pleurotus spp., this review seeks to revisit the genus, making an updated approach on the recent discoveries of polysaccharides, new extraction techniques and bioactivities, emphasising on their mechanisms and routes in order to update the reader on the recent technologies related to these polymers.