OBJECTIVE : There is sparse literature that investigates the adverse effects of postoperative pulmonary complication (PPCs) specifically in postcraniotomy tumor patients. In this study, we describe the rate of PPCs, determine predictive factors, and delineate associations with adverse outcomes. METHODS : The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2006-2016) database was queried for patients who underwent craniotomy for brain tumors. A total of 28,700 eligible patients were identified. Univariate tests and/or multivariate logistic regression were used to determine predictors of PPC and associations with adverse outcomes. RESULTS : A total of 19 predictors of PPC across 14 different categories were identified: age 65-79 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.6; P < 0.001), age ≥80 years (OR 2.3; P < 0.001), male sex (OR 1.3; P < 0.001), operative time ≥360 minutes (OR 4.3; P < 0.001), operative time 300-359 minutes (OR 2.5; P < 0.001), operative time 240-299 minutes (OR 1.8; P < 0.001), operative time 180-239 minutes (OR 1.3; P < 0.001), total functional dependence (OR 3.8; P < 0.001), partial functional dependence (OR 1.7; P < 0.001), insulin-dependent diabetes (OR 1.5; P < 0.001), preoperative dyspnea (OR 1.3; P = 0.01), chronic steroid use (OR 1.4; P < 0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.8; P < 0.001), preoperative leukocytosis (OR 1.4; P < 0.001), anemia (OR 1.2; P < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification ≥3 (OR 2.0; P < 0.001), emergency case status (OR 2.0; P < 0.001), and infratentorial lesions (OR 1.4; P < 0.001). PPCs were significantly associated with higher reoperation, readmission, and mortality rates as well as longer length of stay (univariate). CONCLUSIONS : There are several predictive factors of PPCs in patients that undergo surgical resection of brain tumors, and PPC development is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. It is critically important to understand and, if possible, mitigate controllable circumstances that may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with PPCs.