Prednisone is genotoxic in mice and Drosophila melanogaster.

Affiliation

de Oliveira LC(1), de Melo Bisneto AV(1), Puga SC(1), Fernandes AS(1), Véras JH(1), Cardoso CG(2), Ribeiro E Silva C(3), Carneiro CC(4), Chen-Chen L(5).
Author information:
(1)Laboratory of Radiobiology and Mutagenesis, Department of Genetics, Institute of Biological Sciences, Campus Samambaia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.
(2)Laboratory of Radiobiology and Mutagenesis, Department of Histology, Embryology and Cell Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Campus Samambaia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.
(3)Laboratory of Radiobiology and Mutagenesis, Department of Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Campus Samambaia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.
(4)Department of Biomedicine, School of Medical, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás, 74605-010, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.
(5)Laboratory of Radiobiology and Mutagenesis, Department of Genetics, Institute of Biological Sciences, Campus Samambaia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900, Goiânia, GO, Brazil. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Prednisone (PD) is one of the most commonly used corticosteroids in immunosuppressive therapy for patients with autoimmune diseases and transplants. Chronic use of corticosteroids is associated with several side effects and an increase in neoplasia. Since genotoxic effects are associated with an increased risk of cancer development, this study evaluated the genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of PD using the SMART/wing assay in Drosophila melanogaster and the micronucleus test and comet assay in mouse bone marrow cells. Further, the toxic effects of PD on mouse organ tissues were assessed using histopathological analyses. In the SMART/wing assay, PD showed a significant genotoxic activity at all concentrations tested (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL) compared to the negative control (p < 0.05). The micronucleus test and comet assay also showed an elevated genotoxicity of PD at all treatment conditions (24, 48, and 120 h with doses ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg) compared to the negative control (p < 0.05). The histopathological analyses did not show toxicity of PD in mouse cells and tissues. Therefore, our results demonstrate that PD is a potent genotoxic immunosuppressant in mice and D. melanogaster cells. Somatic recombination was the primary contributor (46%-82%) to the induced genotoxicity observed in the SMART test.