Prenatal exposure to maternal, but not paternal, tobacco smoking is associated with smoking in adolescence.

Affiliation

Duko B(1), Pereira G(2), Betts K(3), Tait RJ(4), Newnham J(5), Alati R(6).
Author information:
(1)School of Population Health, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia. Electronic address: [Email]
(2)School of Population Health, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia; Telethon Kids Institute, Northern Entrance, Perth Children's Hospital, 15 Hospital Ave, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia; Centre for Fertility and Health
(CeFH), Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
(3)School of Population Health, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.
(4)National Drug Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, 7 Parker Place Building 609, Level 2 Technology Park, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.
(5)Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 17 Monash Ave, Nedlands WA 6009, Australia.
(6)School of Population Health, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia; Institute for Social Sciences Research, The University of Queensland, 80 Meier's Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Mounting epidemiological evidence suggests an association between prenatal tobacco exposure and an increased risk of tobacco smoking in offspring. However, it is uncertain whether the association is due to the intrauterine or shared environmental exposures. METHODS: Study participants were from the Raine Study, a prospective birth cohort study based in Perth, Western Australia (N = 2730). Tobacco smoking in adolescents, at age 17 years, was measured using a self-reported questionnaire. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of tobacco smoking in offspring exposed to maternal prenatal tobacco use during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy. We have also calculated the E-values to investigate the potential effect of unmeasured confounding. Paternal smoking during pregnancy was used as a negative control for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 1210 mothers-offspring pairs were included in the final analysis. After controlling for potential confounders, we found increased risks of tobacco smoking in offspring exposed to maternal prenatal tobacco use during the first trimester [RR 1.50 (95% CI: 1.13-1.97)] (E-value for point estimate = 2.37) and during both trimesters of pregnancy [RR 1.41 (95% CI: 1.03-1.89)] (E-value for point estimate = 2.17). However, we found insufficient statistical evidence for an association between paternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of tobacco smoking in offspring [RR 1.18 (95% CI: 0.84-1.67)]. CONCLUSION: Maternal prenatal tobacco exposure was associated with an increased risk of tobacco smoking in offspring at the age of 17 years. Tobacco smoking cessation at the early stages of gestation may reduce the risk of tobacco smoking in the next generation.