Preparation of cassava starch hydrogels for application in 3D printing using dry heating treatment (DHT): A prospective study on the effects of DHT and gelatinization conditions.


ONIRIS-GEPEA UMR CNRS 6144, Nantes, France; BIA-INRA UR 1268, Nantes, France; SFR IBSM INRA CNRS 4202, France; Department of Agri-food Industry, Food and Nutrition (LAN), Luiz de Queiroz, College of Agriculture (ESALQ), University of São Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: [Email]


3D printing is a technology capable of presenting creative, unique and intricate items in an attractive format, with specific compositions. However, novel ingredients must be developed to satisfy this new technological requirement. This work proposes dry heating treatment (DHT), a simple physical technique, as a method for modifying cassava starch, with particular focus on its use for 3D printing. DHT processing was conducted at 130 °C for 2 and 4 h (named DHT_2h and DHT_4h, respectively). Different gelatinization conditions (65, 75, 85, and 95 °C) were applied, and the hydrogels were evaluated considering different storage periods (1 and 7 days). Cassava starch properties were evaluated, focusing on the application of its hydrogels to 3D printing. The increase of DHT time produced a starch with higher carbonyl content and bigger granule size. It also reduced the water absorption index, increased the water solubility index, affected granule crystallinity and reduced molecular size. The longest storage period increased gel firmness. Increasing the temperature used in the gelatinization process reduced the gel strength of the native and DHT_2h. DHT_4h showed the lowest peak apparent viscosity and provided the strongest gels for all the evaluated conditions. Gels produced with DHT starches exhibited better printability than the native starch, mainly for the DHT_4h. This treatment was chosen to print 3D stars, and displayed better resolution than the native gels. Therefore, by using DHT, it was possible to obtain hydrogels with enhanced pasting properties, gel texture, and printability, thereby expanding the potential of applying cassava starch to 3D printing.


3D food printing,Novel ingredients,Printability,Starch modification,Starchy gels,

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