Prevalence and Nonpharmacological Interventions for Sarcopenia among Cirrhotic Patients.

Affiliation

Abdelbasset WK(1)(2), Nambi G(1), Elsayed SH(3), Moawd SA(1)(4), Ibrahim AA(5), Verma A(1), Tantawy SA(6)(7), Kamel DM(8), Saleh AK(9)(10), Aldhafian OR(9), Nwihadh NB(9).
Author information:
(1)Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.
(2)Department of Physical Therapy, Kasr Al-Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
(3)Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
(4)Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular/Respiratory Disorders and Geriatrics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
(5)Department of Physical Therapy, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Ha'il University, Hail, Saudi Arabia.
(6)Department of Physiotherapy, Centre of Radiation, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
(7)Department of Physiotherapy for Integumentary Problems, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Deraya University, Menia, Egypt.
(8)Department of Physiotherapy for Women's Health, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
(9)Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.
(10)Department of Orthopedic, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract

Sarcopenia is the most common feature of hepatic cirrhosis characterized by progressive loss of muscle mass and function and increases permanently the mortality and morbidity rates among those patients. The incidence of sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients ranged 40-70% associating with impaired quality of life and augmented rates of infection. Based on these issues, this review is aimed at determining the prevalence and main causes of sarcopenia among cirrhotic patients and recognizing the recent diagnostic and physical treatment modalities that prevent risk factors for sarcopenia in those patients. No ideal modality is currently demonstrated for diagnosing sarcopenia in hepatic diseases, particularly cirrhosis; however, recent studies reported different diagnostic modalities for muscle function in different individuals including handgrip strength, skeletal muscle index, six-min walk test, liver frailty index, short physical performance battery, and radiological assessments for quadriceps and psoas muscles. Exercise training and therapeutic nutrition are strongly recommended for controlling sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients. The exercise program is designed and carried out on a frequent basis within an extensive scheduled time aimed at improving functional performance, aerobic capacity, and healthy conditions. Finally, a combination of exercise training and therapeutic nutrition is powerfully recommended to control sarcopenia in cirrhosis.