Prevalence and characteristics of older people with pressure ulcers and legs ulcers, in nursing homes in Barcelona.

Author

Hernández-Martínez-Esparza E

Affiliation

Hernández-Martínez-Esparza E(1), Santesmases-Masana R(2), Román E(3), Abades Porcel M(4), Torner Busquet A(5), Berenguer Pérez M(6), Verdú-Soriano J(7).
Author information:
(1)School of Nursing, Hospital Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
(UAB), Sant Antoni M. Claret, 167, 08025, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]
(2)School of Nursing, Hospital Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
(UAB), Sant Antoni M. Claret, 167, 08025, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]
(3)School of Nursing, Hospital Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
(UAB), Sant Antoni M. Claret, 167, 08025, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]
(4)School of Nursing, Hospital Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
(UAB), Sant Antoni M. Claret, 167, 08025, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]
(5)Quality Management Mutuam Group, Provença, 392., 08025, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]
(6)Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine, Public Health and History of Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, Carretera de San Vicente Del Raspeig, S/n, 03690, San Vicente Del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]
(7)Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine, Public Health and History of Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, Carretera de San Vicente Del Raspeig, S/n, 03690, San Vicente Del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents are vulnerable to chronic wounds. However, the prevalence data are scarce. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of pressure ulcers and/or leg ulcers in nursing home residents, and describe the characteristics of the nursing homes, the residents and the wounds, as well as possible associations between these characteristics. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of nursing home residents over the age of 65 in 168 facilities in Barcelona. Those presenting category II-IV pressure ulcers and/or leg ulcers were included. The data were collected by observation/examination. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of pressure ulcers and leg ulcers combined was 4.4% (3.5% were pressure ulcers and 0.9% were leg ulcers). In small nursing homes with less nursing staff, the overall prevalence was greater than in large nursing homes (5.6% vs 3.8% [p = 0.01]). As expected, residents with pressure ulcers had higher pressure ulcer risk, worse dependence and cognitive status, urinary and faecal incontinence, and most were underweight. However, residents with leg ulcers had worse venous and arterial impairment and also were overweight. A multivariate analysis showed that pressure ulcers were statistically significantly associated with faecal incontinence (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.81) and dyslipidaemia (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.66), and leg ulcers were statistically significantly associated with venous insufficiency (OR = 4.93, 95% CI = 1.65-15.34). The characteristics of gluteal and ischial pressure ulcers, a high prevalence of infection, and a low reference to biofilm by nurses, in both types of wounds, suggest that these aspects are not adequately taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: Pressure ulcers and leg ulcers, mainly pressure ulcers, remain a public health problem in nursing homes. Further studies are required to confirm the associations found in this study.