Primary Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Temporal Bone: A Single-Center Clinical Study.


Komune N(1), Noda T(1), Kogo R(1), Miyazaki M(2), Tsuchihashi NA(1), Hongo T(1), Koike K(1), Sato K(1), Uchi R(1), Wakasaki T(1), Matsumoto N(1), Yasumatsu R(1), Nakagawa T(1).
Author information:
(1)Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
(2)Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fukuoka University Hospital and School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.


OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The extreme rarity of temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma (TB-SCC) has delayed the accumulation of high-quality clinical evidence. For the purposes of retrospective meta-analysis in the future, a large dataset with information from various institutions would be ideal. Our objective here was to retrospectively review cases of TB-SCC encountered at a single tertiary referral center and explore survival outcomes and prognostic factors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: The medical records of all TB-SCC cases were retrospectively reviewed. The resulting dataset contained 71 cases of primary cancer eligible for initial definitive (curative) treatment. RESULTS: T4 status was associated with lower disease-specific 5-year survival than T1 to T3 staging (T1: 100%, T2: 92%, T3: 86%, T4: 51%). Survival was significantly higher in operable than in inoperable cases, even when restricted to advanced (T3/T4) cancers. The tumor extension to the middle ear cavity was observed in 13/17 of T3 cases, but it was not associated with poor survival. In addition, among operable cases, negative surgical margins were associated with significantly higher survival than positive margins. CONCLUSIONS: Definitive treatments can offer disease-specific 5-year survival of over 85% in T1 to T3 cases of TB-SCC. The tumor extension to the middle ear cavity is not associated with poor survival. T4 status, inoperability, nodal invasion, and positive surgical margin are identified as a predictor of poor prognosis. Still, the matter of how to deal with unresectable tumors remains an outstanding issue in the treatment of TB-SCC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E583-E589, 2021.