Probing neural tissues at small scales: Recent progress of oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) neuroimaging in humans.

Affiliation

Xu J(1).
Author information:
(1)Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA; Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The detection sensitivity of diffusion MRI (dMRI) is dependent on diffusion times. A shorter diffusion time can increase the sensitivity to smaller length scales. However, the conventional dMRI uses the pulse gradient spin echo (PGSE) sequence that probes relatively long diffusion times only. To overcome this, the oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) sequence has been developed to probe much shorter diffusion times with hardware limitations on preclinical and clinical MRI systems. The OGSE sequence has been previously used on preclinical animal MRI systems. Recently, several studies have translated the OGSE sequence to humans on clinical MRI systems and achieved new information that is invisible using conventional PGSE sequence. This paper provides an overview of the recent progress of the OGSE neuroimaging in humans, including the technical improvements in the translation of the OGSE sequence to human imaging and various applications in different neurological disorders and stroke. Some possible future directions of the OGSE sequence are also discussed.