Profiles of antibiotic resistome and microbial community in groundwater of CKDu prevalence zones in Sri Lanka.

Affiliation

Cooray T(1), Zhang J(2), Zhong H(3), Zheng L(3), Wei Y(4), Weragoda SK(5), Jinadasa KBSN(6), Weerasooriya R(7).
Author information:
(1)State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; Department of Water Pollution Control Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China; Department of Applied Earth Sciences, Uva Wellassa University, Badulla, 90000, Sri Lanka. Electronic address: [Email]
(2)State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; Department of Water Pollution Control Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(3)State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; Department of Water Pollution Control Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.
(4)State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; Department of Water Pollution Control Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China; National Centre for Water Quality Research, National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, Kandy, 20000, Sri Lanka. Electronic address: [Email]
(5)National Water Supply and Drainage Board, Katugastota, 20800, Sri Lanka.
(6)Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, 20400, Sri Lanka.
(7)National Centre for Water Quality Research, National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, Kandy, 20000, Sri Lanka.

Abstract

The chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) prevalent in certain regions of Sri Lanka poses a serious threat to human health. Previous epidemiological studies focused on the search of causative agents for CKDu etiology from the viewpoint of groundwater composition, but how CKDu prevalence affected the groundwater microbial composition, especially the antibiotic resistome, has never been illuminated. This study investigated the response of microbial community and antibiotic resistome to CKDu prevalence in the groundwater through the high throughput sequencing and qPCR (HT-qPCR), respectively. Results showed that CKDu prevalence significantly influenced the distribution of antibiotic resistome and microbial community composition. The mexF dominated in all the groundwater samples and could be considered as an intrinsic ARG, and the β-lactamase cphA was specially enriched and closely associated with the antibiotics used for CKDu patients. The Acinetobacter was a potential human pathogen common in the groundwater of CKDu affected regions, while CKDu prevalence specially enriched the Aeromonas. Statistical analysis indicated that CKDu prevalence impacted antibiotic resistome through the microbial community as a whole, and MGEs contributed to the occurrence of mexF, while the enrichment of cphA could be attributed to the increase of Aeromonas.