Prospective associations of dietary carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake with β-cell function in the CODAM study.


Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands. [Email]


OBJECTIVE : Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by both impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin resistance. In the etiology of T2DM, BCF basically determines whether a person with a certain degree of insulin resistance develops T2DM, as β-cells are able to compensatorily increase insulin secretion. The effects of dietary intake on BCF are largely unknown. Our study aim was to investigate whether dietary macronutrient intake predicts BCF.
METHODS : Prospective data (median follow-up 7 years) of 303 individuals recruited from the CODAM study population (aged 40-70 years, 39% women) were analyzed. BCF was measured by C-peptide deconvolution and physiological modeling of data from a 5-point, 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Macronutrient intake was estimated by a 178-item Food Frequency Questionnaire.
RESULTS : Associations adjusted for relevant covariates of baseline macronutrient intake with model-derived parameters describing BCF (glucose sensitivity, rate sensitivity or potentiation) or C-peptidogenic index were detected for trans fat [standardized regression coefficient (95%-CI) glucose sensitivity - 0.14 (- 0.26, - 0.01)] per g, cholesterol [potentiation 0.20 (0.02, 0.37)] per 100 mg, dietary fiber [glucose sensitivity 0.21 (0.08, 0.33)] per 10 g, MUFA glucose sensitivity 0.16 (0.02, 0.31) per 10 g, and polysaccharide [potentiation - 0.24 (- 0.43, - 0.05), C-peptidogenic index - 0.16 (- 0.29 - 0.03); odds ratio lowest versus highest tertile (95%-CI) rate sensitivity 1.51 (1.06, 2.15)) per 50 g.
CONCLUSIONS : In this population at high risk for developing T2DM, polysaccharide and trans fat intake were associated with worse BCF, whereas increased intake of MUFA, dietary cholesterol, and fiber were associated with better BCF.


Carbohydrate,Fat,Protein,Type 2 diabetes mellitus,β-Cell function,