Protuberances are organized distinct regions of long-term callus: histological and transcriptomic analyses in kiwifruit.

Affiliation

Czernicka M(#)(1), Chłosta I(#)(2), Kęska K(1), Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno M(3), Abdullah M(2), Popielarska-Konieczna M(4).
Author information:
(1)Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture, 29-Listopada 54, 31-425, Kraków, Poland.
(2)Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Botany, The Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Kraków, Poland.
(3)Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308, Gdańsk, Poland.
(4)Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Botany, The Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Kraków, Poland. [Email]
(#)Contributed equally

Abstract

Macroscopic, ultrastructural, and molecular features-like a ball shape, the presence of starch granules, and the up-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and secondary metabolite biosynthesis-distinguish PT regions within a callus. The modification of the mass of pluripotent cells into de novo shoot bud regeneration is highly relevant to developmental biology and for agriculture and biotechnology. This study deals with protuberances (PT), structures that appear during the organogenic long-term culturing of callus (OC) in kiwifruit. These ball-shaped regions of callus might be considered the first morphological sign of the subsequent shoot bud development. Sections of PT show the regular arrangement of some cells, especially on the surface, in contrast to the regions of OC beyond the PT. The cells of OC possess chloroplasts; however, starch granules were observed only in PTs' plastids. Transcriptomic data revealed unique gene expression for each kind of sample: OC, PT, and PT with visible shoot buds (PT-SH). Higher expression of the gene involved in lipid (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 5 [GPAT5]), carbohydrate (granule-bound starch synthase 1 [GBSS1]), and secondary metabolite (beta-glucosidase 45 [BGL45]) pathways were detected in PT and could be proposed as the markers of these structures. The up-regulation of the regulatory associated protein of TOR (RAPTOR1) was found in PT-SH. The highest expression of the actinidain gene in leaves from two-year-old regenerated plants suggests that the synthesis of this protein takes place in fully developed organs. The findings indicate that PT and PT-SH are specific structures within OC but have more features in common with callus tissue than with organs.