Radiosensitization by Au-nanofilm at micrometer level using confocal Raman spectroscopy.


Hernández Millares R(1), Mirza JA(1)(2), Lee J(1), Choi K(1), Eom M(1), Ye SJ(1)(3)(4).
Author information:
(1)Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Korea.
(2)Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan.
(3)Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 03080, Korea.
(4)Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon, 16229, Korea.


PURPOSE: To measure the radiosensitization by an Au-nanofilm (GNF) at a micrometer level on a radiochromic film (RCF) using confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS). METHODS: Unlaminated radiochromic films were irradiated by 200 kVp x-ray from 0.3 to 50 Gy to obtain a calibration curve. Raman spectra of these films were measured by positioning the postirradiated RCF perpendicular to the CRS monochromatic beam and reading a depth profile of the film along the lateral axis. The Raman peak corresponding to the C ≡ C peak was obtained from a region of interest of 100 × 5 µm2 . To investigate the radiosensitization by GNF, two sets of RCF, one attached to a 100-nm thick GNF and the other without GNF were irradiated at 0.5 Gy by 50 and 120 kVp X-rays. The spatial resolution of the CRS on the RCF was quantified by the modulation transfer function method (MTF). Thus, in the spatial resolution determined by MTF, the doses deposited on the films were evaluated. The dose enhancement factor (DEF) was obtained in the measurable micro-size by comparing doses deposited on the RCFs with and without GNF. To verify the experimental results, Monte Carlo simulations following the experimental set up were performed using Geant4. In addition, analytical calculations for the radiosensitization by GNF were carried out. RESULTS: The confocal Raman spectroscopy on the RCF achieved a spatial resolution of ~6 μm. An experimental DEF within the first 6 μm depth from the surface of RCF was found to be 17.9 for 50 kVp and 14.7 for 120 kVp. The DEF for the same depth obtained by MC and analytical calculations was 13.53 and 9.75 for 50 kVp, and 10.63 and 6.67 for 120 kVp, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental DEF as a function of the distance from GNF was consistent with data from previous studies and the MC simulations, supporting that CRS in conjunction with the RCF is a feasible micrometer-resolution dosimeter.