Rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in large volume samples using porous electrodes in a flow-through, enzyme-amplified immunoelectrochemical sensor.


United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA, 19038, USA. [Email]


Foodborne illness is a common yet preventable public health concern generating significant costs for the healthcare system, making systems to accurately detect this pathogen a topic of current research. Enzyme-based immunoassays are highly desirable because they offer shorter response times compared to traditional culture-based methods. Biosensors employing the electrochemical and optical detection of a substrate oxidized by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) have been used to successfully detect biomolecules; however, their inability to handle large sample volumes severely limits their application to food safety despite their accuracy and reliability. Here, we describe a biosensor with the capacity to process a large sample volume by utilizing an Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a platinum counter electrode, and a porous working electrode made from graphite felt coated with antibodies specific for Salmonella common structural antigens. This design allows samples to flow-through the electrode while capturing target pathogens. Following sample exposure, HRP-conjugated antibodies facilitate pathogen detection that culminates in an oxidation reaction with the output analyzed via Osteryoung square wave voltammetry. Detection limits of 1000 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium cells were achieved using this newly devised flow-through, enzyme-amplified, electrochemical biosensor in samples as large as 60 mL. The low cost of the sensor allows for incorporation into disposable detection devices while its design not only broadens its applicability in sample processing but also permits the detection of various microbes by simply exchanging the antibodies.


Biosensor,Electrochemical sensor,Graphite felt,Immunoelectrochemistry,Salmonella enterica,