Real-time monitoring of aristolochic acid I reduction process using surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with DFT simulation.

Affiliation

Cao L(1), Liu H(2), Xie W(2), Jiao S(3), Wu X(3), Yuan K(3), Zhou X(4), Yang M(5), Guan Y(5), Cai H(2), Lai Z(6), Chen J(7), Zhou H(8).
Author information:
(1)College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China; School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.
(2)College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.
(3)College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.
(4)College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China; Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.
(5)Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.
(6)School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China; Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.
(7)Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.
(8)College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

With the increasing number of reports on aristolochic acid I (AAI), more and more toxic and side effects have been discovered successively. The main recognized carcinogenic mechanism is that AAI is metabolized into aristololactam I (AAT) in the body by nitroreductases, ultimately forming AAT-DNA adducts that cause disease. However, the carcinogenic mechanism is still not well understood by currently reported indirect method, there has always been a great demand to develop a direct method for real-time monitoring such process. In this work, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used for the first time to monitor the process of AAI under the action of reducing agent sodium borohydride and catalyst Raney nickel to form AAT. We first found the abundant intermediate product-amino derivative of AAI, which was never reported before by other methods. The AAT was then obtained by a one-step dehydration reaction from the amino derivative of AAI under such reduction conditions. The product of amino derivative of AAI and AAT were further verified by thin-layer chromatography, H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, mass spectrometry, and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, a density functional theory-supported in-depth vibrational characterization of AAI and AAT was performed. The monitoring of the AAI reduction process by SERS can be of great significance for further exploration of its pathogenic mechanism, prevention, and monitoring of "nephropathy" and other diseases caused by AAI.