Real-time particle-by-particle detection of erythrocyte-camouflaged microsensor with extended circulation time in the bloodstream.


Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115; [Email]


Personalized medicine offers great potential benefits for disease management but requires continuous monitoring of drugs and drug targets. For instance, the therapeutic window for lithium therapy of bipolar disorder is very narrow, and more frequent monitoring of sodium levels could avoid toxicity. In this work, we developed and validated a platform for long-term, continuous monitoring of systemic analyte concentrations in vivo. First, we developed sodium microsensors that circulate directly in the bloodstream. We used "red blood cell mimicry" to achieve long sensor circulation times of up to 2 wk, while being stable, reversible, and sensitive to sodium over physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Second, we developed an external optical reader to detect and quantify the fluorescence activity of the sensors directly in circulation without having to draw blood samples and correlate the measurement with a phantom calibration curve to measure in vivo sodium. The reader design is inherently scalable to larger limbs, species, and potentially even humans. In combination, this platform represents a paradigm for in vivo drug monitoring that we anticipate will have many applications in the future.


diffuse in vivo flow cytometry,erythrocytes,microsensors,sodium monitoring,

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