Recent Advances in Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Melanoma.

Affiliation

Cassano R(1), Cuconato M(1), Calviello G(2)(3), Serini S(2)(3), Trombino S(1).
Author information:
(1)Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende, 87036 Cosenza, Italy.
(2)Department of Translational Medicine and Surgery, Section of General Pathology, School of Medicine and Surgery, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito, 00168 Rome, Italy.
(3)Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo F. Vito, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Abstract

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, with few possibilities for therapeutic approaches, due to its multi-drug resistance and, consequently, low survival rate for patients. Conventional therapies for treatment melanoma include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, which have various side effects. For this reason, in recent years, pharmaceutical and biomedical research has focused on new sito-specific alternative therapeutic strategies. In this regard, nanotechnology offers numerous benefits which could improve the life expectancy of melanoma patients with very low adverse effects. This review aims to examine the latest advances in nanotechnology as an innovative strategy for treating melanoma. In particular, the use of different types of nanoparticles, such as vesicles, polymers, metal-based, carbon nanotubes, dendrimers, solid lipid, microneedles, and their combination with immunotherapies and vaccines will be discussed.