Recent advances in extracting pectin by single and combined ultrasound techniques: A review of techno-functional and bioactive health-promoting aspects.


Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Bahrami Children Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]


Ultrasonication is an emerging nonthermal process to extract pectins and pectic-polysaccharides from natural sources. This review aimed to highlight recent results of techno-functional (e.g., water and oil holding capacities, foaming capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability, rheological and pasting properties, and tin corrosion inhibitory activity) and biofunctional (e.g., antioxidant, antiradical, antiglycation, anticoagulant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and analgesic activities) properties of pectins extracted using both single and combined sonication modes. Integrating the ultrasound with other techniques (e.g., microwave heating and enzymatic digestion) can significantly increase the cell disruption, better penetration, and mass transfer of pectins at a shorter time. The ultrasound-microwave (UMAE) and ultrasound-enzyme (UEAE) assisted extraction systems compared to the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) can more improve the techno-functional quality of pectins and their body's healing capacity to accomplish optimum health and functioning. The current opportunities and promising perspectives are also presented to enhance the pectin bioavailability in clinical studies.



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