Green chemical production by microbial processes is critical for the development of a sustainable society in the twenty-first century. Among the important industrial microorganisms, the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum has been utilized for amino acid fermentation, which is one of the largest microbial-based industries. To date, several amino acids, including L-glutamic acid, L-lysine, and L-threonine, have been produced by C. glutamicum. The capability to produce substantial amounts of amino acids has gained immense attention because the amino acids can be used as a precursor to produce other high-value-added chemicals. Recent developments in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology technologies have enabled the extension of metabolic pathways from amino acids. The present review provides an overview of the recent progress in the microbial production of amino acid-derived bio-based monomers such as 1,4-diaminobutane, 1,5-diaminopentane, glutaric acid, 5-aminolevulinic acid, L-pipecolic acid, 4-amino-1-butanol, and 5-aminolevulinic acid, as well as building blocks for healthcare products and pharmaceuticals such as ectoine, L-theanine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid by metabolically engineered C. glutamicum.
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