Recruited bone marrow derived cells, local stromal cells and IL-17 at the front line of resistance development to anti-VEGF targeted therapies.


Recombinant Proteins Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]


Although anti-angiogenic agents targeting VEGF have shown affordable beneficial outcomes in several human cancer types, in most pre-clinical and clinical studies, these effects are transient and followed by rapid relapse and tumor regrowth. Recently, it has been suggested that recruited bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) to the tumor-microenvironment together with stromal cells play an important role in development of resistance to anti-VEGF therapies. Additionally, acquired resistance to anti-VEGF therapies has shown to be mediated partly through overexpression of different pro-angiogenic cytokines and growth factors including G-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF and FGF by these cells. Alongside, IL-17, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, mostly secreted by infiltrated CD4+ T helper cells, has shown to mediate resistance to anti-VEGF therapies, through recruiting BMDCs and modulating stromal cells activities including endothelial cells, tumor associated macrophages and cancer associated fibroblasts. Here, we examined the role of BMDCs, tumor stromal cells, IL-17 and their negotiation in development of resistance to anti-VEGF targeted therapies.


Angiogenesis,Anti-VEGF therapies,Bone marrow derived cells,IL-17,Stromal cells,