Refractive Errors, Ocular Biometry and Diabetic Retinopathy: A Comprehensive Review.

Affiliation

He M(1), Chen H(2), Wang W(3).
Author information:
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences , Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.
(2)The Royal Melbourne Hospital , Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
(3)Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-Sen University , Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Abstract

Purpose: To summarize the association between diabetic retinopathy and refractory status as well as ocular biometric parameters; To review the theories of the protective effect of high myopia against diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus databases as well as reference list search, and systematic review of relevant publications.  Results: Myopia may delay the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Increased axial length in myopia is associated with reduced risk of any diabetic retinopathy and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. The possible mechanisms for the protective effect of myopia against diabetic retinopathy may include posterior vitreous detachment, change in retinal blood flow and oxygen demand, choroidal thinning and altered cytokine profiles.  Conclusions: High myopia may be a protective factor against the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Further studies about the mechanisms of how myopia, axial length and ocular biometrics influence the onset and progression of DR are needed.