Our previous studies showed that the effect of resveratrol preventing mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was achieved by regulating voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Previous studies demonstrated that the activity and function of VDAC1 are highly regulated by post-translational modification. In present study, we investigated whether resveratrol modulates VDAC1 phosphorylation to achieve cardioprotection and explored the signaling pathways involved. Our findings demonstrated that anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) treatment, an ischemia/reperfusion model in vitro, enhanced VDAC1 phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, we found phosphorylated VDAC1 showed increased affinity to Bax, whereas interaction with hexokinase 2 (HK2) was reduced. Accordingly, the generation of reactive oxygen species increased, the mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed, mPTP opening increased and cytochrome c released into cytoplasm, thereby leading to increased apoptosis. Moreover, our data showed that pretreatment with resveratrol prior to A/R injury inhibited VDAC1 phosphorylation. Dephosphorylated VDAC1 using pretreated resveratrol promoted dissociation with Bax and binding to HK2, which subsequently protected cardiomyocytes against A/R injury. In addition, Akt and its downstream glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β) were phosphorylated by the action of resveratrol. Akt inhibitor IV abrogated Akt-GSK3β phosphorylation and thereby abolished the dephosphorylation activity of resveratrol on VDAC1. Moreover, all resveratrol-mediated protective effects on A/R injured cardiomyocytes were abolished by Akt inhibitor IV. Taken together, our data indicated that A/R injury enhanced VDAC1 phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes, whereas pretreatment with resveratrol dephosphorylated VDAC1 through the Akt-GSK3β pathway, thereby protecting cardiomyocytes against A/R injury.