Rheumatology is one of the most important clinical subspecialties in Iran. In the past 2 decades, Iran has witnessed an immense progress in the field of rheumatology training and research, which has led to an increase in the number of rheumatologists and research performed in the field of musculoskeletal disorders. These advances have made way for greater access to subspecialty care for rheumatic disorders. To write this article, we performed a systematic literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and SID databases. In the first part of the manuscript, we will provide information about the history of rheumatology, rheumatology practice, referral system, the rheumatology training in medical schools, training of rheumatology subspecialists and post-graduate program of continuing medical education for rheumatologists in Iran as well as the Iranian Rheumatology Society. We will then focus on rheumatology research, top researchers, research centers focused on rheumatic disorders, the characteristics of common rheumatic diseases and ultimately biologics and biosimilars in Iran.