Robust W/O/W Emulsion Stabilized by Genipin-Cross-Linked Sugar Beet Pectin-Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles: Co-encapsulation of Betanin and Curcumin.

Affiliation

Tang XY(1), Wang ZM(1)(2), Meng HC(1)(3)(4), Lin JW(1), Guo XM(1), Zhang T(1), Chen HL(1), Lei CY(1), Yu SJ(1)(3)(4).
Author information:
(1)School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.
(2)Sericultural & Agri-Food Research Institute Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Functional Foods, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing, Guangzhou 510610, China.
(3)Overseas Expertise Introduction Center for Discipline Innovation of Food Nutrition and Human Health
(111 Center), Guangzhou 510640, China.
(4)Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Abstract

Betanin and curcumin hold promise as natural colorants and antioxidants for food purposes due to their anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumor effects. However, the thermal stability and bioavailability of betanin and curcumin still need improvement. Here, we fabricated sugar beet pectin-bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (SBNPs) with a mean particle size of 180 ± 5.2 nm through a genipin cross-linking strategy to stabilize a type of Pickering water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion and co-encapsulated betanin and curcumin. First, the W1/O emulsion was homogenized with gelatin (the gelling agent) in the water phase and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (a lipophilic surfactant) in the oil phase. Later, W1/O was homogenized with another water phase containing SBNPs. The microstructure of the emulsion was regulated by the particle concentration (c) and W1/O volume fraction (Φ), especially the gel-like high internal phase emulsions were formed at the Φ up to 70%. In this case, betanin was encapsulated in the internal water phase (encapsulation efficiency = 65.3%), whereas curcumin was in the medium-chain triglyceride (encapsulation efficiency = 84.1%). Meanwhile, the shelf stability of betanin and curcumin was improved. Furthermore, the stability of bioactive compounds was potentiated by an emulsion gel in simulated gastrointestinal digestion, resulting in higher bioaccessibility. The aforementioned results suggest that SBNP-stabilized Pickering W/O/W emulsions could be a potential alternative to co-encapsulate betanin and curcumin with enhancement of shelf stability and bioaccessibility.