Robust trace analysis of polar (C2-C8) perfluorinated carboxylic acids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: method development and application to surface water, groundwater and drinking water.
A simple and robust analytical method for the determination of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with C2 to C8 chains, based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed, validated and applied to tap water, groundwater and surface water. Two stationary phases for LC (Obelisc N and Kinetex C18) and two materials with weak anion-exchange properties for SPE (Strata X-AW and Oasis WAX) were evaluated. Robust separation and retention was achieved with the reversed phase column and an acidic eluent. Quantitative extraction recoveries were generally achieved for PFCAs with C > 3, but extraction efficiencies were different for the two shortest chained analytes: 36 to 114% of perfluoropropanoate (PFPrA) and 14 to 99% of trifluoroacetate (TFA) were recovered with Strata X-AW, while 93 to 103% of PFPrA and 40 to 103% of TFA were recovered with Oasis WAX. The sample pH was identified as a key parameter in the extraction process. One-step elution-filtration was introduced in the workflow, in order to remove sorbent particles and minimise sample preparation steps. Validation resulted in limits of quantification for all PFCAs between 0.6 and 26 ng/L. Precision was between 0.7 and 15% and mean recoveries ranged from 83 to 107%. In groundwater samples from sites impacted by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), PFCA concentrations ranged from 0.056 to 2.2 μg/L. TFA and perfluorooctanoate were the predominant analytes. TFA, however, revealed a more ubiquitous occurrence and was found in concentrations between 0.045 and 17 μg/L in drinking water, groundwater and surface water, which were not impacted by PFASs.