Role of Multiomics Data to Understand Host-Pathogen Interactions in COVID-19 Pathogenesis.

Affiliation

Aggarwal S(1), Acharjee A(1), Mukherjee A(1), Baker MS(2), Srivastava S(1).
Author information:
(1)Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076, India.
(2)Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney 2109, Australia.

Abstract

Human infectious diseases are contributed equally by the host immune system's efficiency and any pathogens' infectivity. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the coronavirus strain causing the respiratory pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To understand the pathobiology of SARS-CoV-2, one needs to unravel the intricacies of host immune response to the virus, the viral pathogen's mode of transmission, and alterations in specific biological pathways in the host allowing viral survival. This review critically analyzes recent research using high-throughput "omics" technologies (including proteomics and metabolomics) on various biospecimens that allow an increased understanding of the pathobiology of SARS-CoV-2 in humans. The altered biomolecule profile facilitates an understanding of altered biological pathways. Further, we have performed a meta-analysis of significantly altered biomolecular profiles in COVID-19 patients using bioinformatics tools. Our analysis deciphered alterations in the immune response, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism and other pathways that cumulatively result in COVID-19 disease, including symptoms such as hyperglycemic and hypoxic sequelae.