Safety and efficacy of prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia involving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole dose reduction in kidney transplantation.


Kidney Transplant Program, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, 61 Queen Street East, 9th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5C 2T2, Canada. [Email]


BACKGROUND : Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the drug of choice for anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) prophylaxis in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Post-transplant management balances preventing PcP with managing TMP-SMX-related adverse effects. TMP-SMX dose reduction addresses adverse effects but its implications to incident PcP are unclear.
METHODS : We performed a retrospective review of all patients transplanted between 2011 and 2015 prescribed daily single strength TMP-SMX for twelve months post-transplantation as PcP prophylaxis. Actual TMP-SMX dose and duration, adverse effects, number of dose reductions and reasons, and PcP events were captured. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for risk factors associated with dose reduction were performed.
RESULTS : Of 438 KTR, 233 (53%) maintained daily TMP-SMX and 205 (47%) sustained ≥1 dose reduction, with the point prevalence of a reduced dose regimen being between 18 and 25%. Median duration for daily TMP-SMX was 8.45/12 months, contributing 4137 patient-months daily TMP-SMX and 1110 patient-months with a reduced dose. PcP did not occur in any patients. There were 84 documented dose reductions for hyperkalemia and 102 for leukopenia, with 12 and 7 patients requiring TMP-SMX cessation. In multivariate analysis, a living donor transplant protected against hyperkalemia (Odds Ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.83, p < 0.01) while acute rejection risked leukopenia (Odds Ratio 3.31, 95% CI 1.39-7.90, p = 0.006).
CONCLUSIONS : TMP-SMX dose reduction is frequent in the first post-transplant year but PcP does not occur. To limit the need for TMP-SMX dose reduction due to adverse effects, a clinical trial comparing daily to thrice weekly single strength TMP-SMX in de-novo KTR is justified.


Adverse effects,Hyperkalemia,Leukopenia,

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