Albuminuria is a pathological condition wherein the human serum albumin (HSA) protein is present in abnormally excess amounts in the urine. A simple and sensitive graphene oxide-mediated fluorescence quenching aptasensor is developed to quantify albumin in urine samples and HSA in serum samples. The aptamer-bound HSA used in this aptasensor has hairpin structures, which are characteristic of the aptamer binding site. The limit of detection of the developed platform is 0.05 μg·mL-1 and the detection range is 0.1-14.0 μg·mL-1, which covers the albuminuria concentration range present in normal human urine and the urine of the patient with kidney diseases. This approach can be modified to measure HSA using a high-throughput quantification platform and portable point of care testing. In addition, the production cost for one reaction is cheaper than those for other standard automated methods. Therefore, this aptasensor has significant potential for commercialization and wide-scale public use.