BACKGROUND : Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is reflective of vascular inflammation and plays a role in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disease. We determine usefulness of serum Lp-PLA2 as a prognostic biomarker for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS : In this prospective, observational study, serum Lp-PLA2 concentrations were detected among 164 patients with acute spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage and 164 healthy controls. Using multivariate analysis, we analyzed its association with poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale >2) at poststroke 90 days and hemorrhagic severity indicated by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and hematoma volume. RESULTS : Serum Lp-PLA2 concentrations were remarkably higher in patients than in controls. Lp-PLA2 concentrations were independently correlated with NIHSS score (t = 5.095, P < .001) and hematoma volume (t = 2.850, P = .005). At 90-day follow-up, 85 patients (51.8%) had poor outcome. Under receiver operating characteristic curve, serum Lp-PLA2 showed a significant prognostic discriminatory capability (AUC, 0.813; 95% CI, 0.744-0.869). Serum Lp-PLA2 concentrations ≥304 ng/ml was an independent predictor associated with poor outcome (OR 7.052; 95% CI 1.971-25.228). CONCLUSIONS : Rising serum Lp-PLA2 concentrations are closely hemorrhagic severity and clinical outcomes after ICH, substantializing serum Lp-PLA2 as a potential prognostic biomarker of ICH.