Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, 251 East Huron St, Feinberg 7-342A, Chicago, IL, 60611, United States. Electronic address: [Email]
Sinonasal glomangiopericytoma (SNGP) is a neoplasm arising in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that shows perivascular myoid differentiation. The diagnosis of SNGP may be diagnostically challenging due to a large number of potential mimics. In the present study, we sought to characterize the histological and molecular features of six cases of SNGP found in prior surgical pathology records over a 15-year period. The average age at diagnosis was 48.5 years (range: 31-78 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Imaging studies in all six cases demonstrated avidly enhancing, lobulated soft tissue masses in the nasal cavity, extending into the sinuses and nasopharynx. Histologically, the tumors were unencapsulated and composed of a proliferation of closely packed, bland, and uniform spindle cells growing deep to an intact surface respiratory epithelium. The cells were separated by a distinctive vascular network ranging from capillaries to large vascular spaces. All cases demonstrated strong positivity for smooth muscle actin, cyclin D1, CD99, and β-catenin (100%). Targeted sequencing revealed recurrent CTNNB1 missense mutations in all cases tested. Additionally, TLE1 was positive in all cases which has not been previously reported. No tested cases harbored SS18 translocations. We found that while no single marker resolves immunohistochemical overlap between SNGP and its histologic mimics, an extended immunohistochemical panel that includes β-catenin, cyclin D1, STAT6, smooth muscle actin, pan-cytokeratin cocktails, S100, and SOX10 helps to support the diagnosis of SNGP in diagnostically challenging cases without the need for molecular studies.