Solid-phase Synthesis of [4.4] Spirocyclic Oximes.


Department of Biology and Chemistry, Azusa Pacific University; [Email]


A convenient synthetic route for spirocyclic heterocycles is well sought after due to the molecule's potential use in biological systems. By means of solid-phase synthesis, regenerating Michael (REM) linker strategies, and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, a library of structurally similar heterocycles, both with and without a spirocyclic center, can be constructed. The main advantages of the solid-support synthesis are as follows: first, each reaction step can be driven to completion using a large excess of reagents resulting in high yields; next, the use of commercially available starting materials and reagents keep the costs low; finally, the reaction steps are easy to purify via simple filtration. The REM linker strategy is attractive because of its recyclability and traceless nature. Once a reaction scheme is completed, the linker can be reused multiple times. In a typical solid-phase synthesis, the product contains either a part of or the whole linker, which can prove undesirable. The REM linker is "traceless" and the point of attachment between the product and the polymer is indistinguishable. The high diastereoselectivity of the intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is well documented. Limited by the insolubility of the solid support, the reaction progression can only be monitored by a change in the functional groups (if any) via infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Thus, the structural identification of intermediates cannot be characterized by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Other limitations to this method stem from the compatibilities of the polymer/linker to the desired chemical reaction scheme. Herein we report a protocol that allows for the convenient production of spirocyclic heterocycles that, with simple modifications, can be automated with high-throughput techniques.

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