This work describes a solvent-free method for the chemical modification of cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) using phthalic anhydride in different proportions with different reaction times. Four biopolymers were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR, and elemental analysis. A computational chemistry study was conducted to understand better the reaction. Phthalated cashew gum was used in preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a conventional route, using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as reducing agent, and for green route. AgNPs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, nanoparticle tracking analysis, Zeta Potential analysis, and atomic force microscopy. AgNPs produced by the green route had an average size of 51.9 nm and Zeta Potential of -55.8 mV, and AgNPs produced by the conventional method had an average size of 47.7 nm and Zeta Potential of -39.3 mV. AgNPs synthesized using phthalated cashew gum showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.