[Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Farmland Soils Surrounding a Typical Industrial Area of Henan Province].

Affiliation

Meng XF(1)(2), Guo JM(1)(2), Yang JX(1)(2), Yang J(1)(2), Zheng GD(1)(2), Qiao PW(3), Bian JL(4), Chen TB(1)(2).
Author information:
(1)Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
(2)University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.
(3)Beijing Key Laboratory of Remediation of industrial Pollution Sites, Environmental Protection Research Institute of Light Industry, Beijing 100089, China.
(4)College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China.

Abstract

In order to fully explore the spatial distribution of soil heavy metal contaminants in farmland soil surrounding a typical industrial area in Dakuai town, Xinxiang city, Henan Province, the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the surface soil and within the soil profile were determined and assessed. The principal components were also analyzed for source apportionment to provide a theoretical basis for the control and prevention of heavy metal pollution. According to the results, the soils in the study area are severely contaminated by Cd and Cu and moderated contaminated by As due to the battery manufacture and Cu (e.g., pipe and wire) processing. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, and As in soils were (2.56±1.23) mg·kg-1, (205.58±157.49) mg·kg-1, and (15.27±4.14) mg·kg-1, respectively, which exceeds standards by 100%, 89.44%, and 3.40%, respectively. Accounting for the influence of pollution sources, terrain, runoff erosion, and prevailing wind direction, all heavy metal concentrations were higher in the south direction, lower in the north direction. The concentrations of Cd and Cu in soil profile samples decreased with depth, with highest concentrations at the surface, indicating the strong effect of industrial activities. Arsenic concentrations varied little with soil depth due to its strong migration ability in alkaline soil, again suggesting an industrial source. Among them, the soil of study area was severely contaminated by Cd and Cu (Level 5). Cd poses a severe potential ecological risk (Level 5) and Cu poses a medium risk (Level 2) in the study soils, while other heavy metals show low potential ecological risk (Level 1). The order of the risk identified was Cd > Cu > Ni > As > Pb > Cr > Zn. In addition, the combined potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the target area is severe. The principal component analysis showed that the high As, Cd, and Cu contents are mainly derived from industrial areas. Therefore, it is urgent to remediate Cd and Cu soil contamination in this area and implement precautions to limit As contamination.