Standardized Hemorrhagic Shock Induction Guided by Cerebral Oximetry and Extended Hemodynamic Monitoring in Pigs.


Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University; [Email]


Hemorrhagic shock ranks among the main reasons for severe injury-related death. The loss of circulatory volume and oxygen carriers can lead to an insufficient oxygen supply and irreversible organ failure. The brain exerts only limited compensation capacities and is particularly at high risk of severe hypoxic damage.This article demonstrates the reproducible induction of life-threatening hemorrhagic shock in a porcine model by means of calculated blood withdrawal. We titrate shock induction guided by near-infrared spectroscopy and extended hemodynamic monitoring to display systemic circulatory failure, as well as cerebral microcirculatory oxygen depletion. In comparison to similar models that primarily focus on predefined removal volumes for shock induction, this approach highlights a titration by means of the resulting failure of macro- and microcirculation.

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