Koumiss is notable for its nutritional functions, and microorganisms in koumiss determine its versatility. In this study, the bacterial and fungal community structures in traditional koumiss from Inner Mongolia, China, were investigated. Our results demonstrated that 6 bacterial phyla represented by 126 genera and 49 species and 3 fungal phyla represented by 59 genera and 57 species were detected in 11 samples of artisanal koumiss. Among them, Lactobacillus was the predominant genus of bacterium, and Kluyveromyces and Saccharomyces dominated at the fungal genus level. In addition, there were no differences in the bacterial and fungal richness and diversity of koumiss from 3 neighboring administrative divisions in Inner Mongolia, and the bacterial and fungal community structures (the varieties and relative abundance of bacterial and fungal genera and species) were clearly distinct in individual samples. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the bacterial and fungal population profiles and the predominant genus and species, which would be beneficial for screening, isolation, and culture of potential probiotics to simulate traditional fermentation of koumiss for industrial and standardized production in the future.