OBJECTIVE : The aim of the study was to profile the subgingival microbiome of Chinese adults with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) using human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM), and to compare the results with matched periodontal healthy controls. METHODS : 15 subjects with GAgP and 15 age- and gender- matched periodontal healthy controls were included. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the deepest pockets of patients with GAgP and matched sites in controls and then analyzed by 16S rRNA-based microarrays. Student's paired t-test was used to compare clinical parameters and mean number of bacterial taxa detected between the two groups. Fisher's exact probability test and Wilcoxon Rank Sum were used to compare bacterial species between all samples. A multiple linear regression model was used for correlations among age, gender and bacterial with clinical parameters. RESULTS : From a total sum of 379 strains tested, 171 bacterial strains were detected from subgingival plaques of the GAgP patients, more than the 157 strains detected in control group. Mean number of subgingival bacterial taxa detected in GAgP group was 68 (SD = 21.06) while in control group was 45 (SD = 21.60). 47 bacterial taxa were detected more frequently in GAgP group while 12 taxa were more prevalent in control group. The significantly more prevalent and abundant taxa of bacteria in GAgP group included Filifactor alocis, Desulfobulbus sp., Fretibacterium sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromon as endodontalis, Peptostreptococcaceae spp., Parvimonas micra, Eubacterium nodatum and Eubacterium saphenum. Meanwhile the more abundant taxa in control group were Streptococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CONCLUSIONS : There are more taxa of bacteria in subgingival plaques of Chinese patients with GAgP than in healthy controls. F. alocis, Desulfobulbus sp., Fretibacterium sp., P. gingivalis and T. forsythia are strongly associated with GAgP. High-throughout microbiological results may help dentists have a better understanding of subgingival microbiome of GAgP.