Sublethal toxicity of PbI(2) in perovskite solar cells to fish embryos (Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes): Deformity and growth inhibition.

Affiliation

Kwak JI(1), Kim L(1), An YJ(2).
Author information:
(1)Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.
(2)Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Pb-based perovskite in solar cells is a source of PbI2. The objective of this study was to characterize the embryonic toxicity of PbI2, a potentially leachable chemical and hazardous material, for two fish species (zebrafish and Japanese medaka). A series of measurements were performed to assess mortality, abnormalities (deformities and other pathological changes), hatchability, and growth inhibition. The results obtained showed that the toxicities observed were predominantly associated with Pb2+ and I-. Therefore, given the potential ecotoxicity of PbI2, precautions should be taken to prevent its release during the breakage and disposal of Pb-based perovskite solar cells.