Surgery for heart failure: Treatment options and implications.


Ahmed R(1), Botezatu B(2), Nanthakumar M(3), Kaloti T(4), Harky A(5)(6)(7).
Author information:
(1)Medical School, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, UK.
(2)School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.
(3)Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.
(4)Department of Epidemiology and Healthcare, University College London, London, UK.
(5)Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK.
(6)Liverpool Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Liverpool and Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK.
(7)Department of Cardiac surgery, Alder Hey NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK.


Heart failure is considered one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the years, etiological risk factors, diagnostic criteria, and classifications have been revised to create guide management needed to alleviate the global health burden caused by heart failure. Pharmacological treatments have progressed over time but are insufficient in reducing mortality. This leads to many patients developing advanced heart failure who will require surgical intervention often in the form of the gold standard, a heart transplant. However, the number of patients requiring a transplant far exceeds the number of donors. Other surgical inventions have been utilized, yet the rate of patients being diagnosed with heart failure is still increasing. Future developments in the surgical field of heart failure include the 77SyncCardia and atrial shunting but long-term clinical trials involving larger cohorts of patients have not yet taken place to view how effective these approaches can be.