Susceptibility-weighted imaging in the differential diagnosis of autoimmune central nervous system vasculitis and multiple sclerosis.

Affiliation

Department of Neurology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE : To determine the differentiating features of autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis and multiple sclerosis (MS) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI).
METHODS : Seventy-three patients (27 with autoimmune CNS vasculitis and 46 with MS) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging with SWI sequence were included. The features of lesions and distinct SWI findings were investigated in both diseases.
RESULTS : On SWI, autoimmune CNS vasculitis presented with a higher prevalence of multiple microbleeds (48.1%), cortical superficial siderosis (70.4%), and tortuosity of the vascular route (59.3%) than were found in MS (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.001, respectively). Multivariable logistic analysis showed that multiple microbleeds and cortical superficial siderosis were associated with a much higher probability of a diagnosis of autoimmune CNS vasculitis than of MS (OR 19.09, 95% CI 1.13-321.18, p = 0.041; and OR 13.20, 95% CI 2.22-78.30, p = 0.005, respectively). The presence of more than eleven lesions was associated with a lower probability of a diagnosis of autoimmune CNS vasculitis than of MS (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03-0.73, p = 0.020).
CONCLUSIONS : SWI may be a useful adjunct in distinguishing autoimmune CNS vasculitis from MS. The identification of multiple microbleeds and cortical superficial siderosis can point to a diagnosis of autoimmune CNS vasculitis.

Keywords

Bleeding,Central nervous system vasculitis,Cortical superficial siderosis,Multiple sclerosis,Susceptibility weighted imaging,

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