Department of Applied Nutrition, Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Department of Applied Nutrition, Nutrition School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: [Email]
BACKGROUND : High body adiposity, inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance (IR), and the endothelial markers-soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1)-are among cardiovascular risk factors observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Synergistic interaction of inflammatory cytokines with adiposity on IR, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 has not been reported in nondialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) patients. Thus the study aim was to evaluate the interaction of inflammatory cytokines on the association of body adiposity with the cardiometabolic risk factors-IR, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1-in NDD-CKD patients. Cytokines association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and body adiposity was also examined. METHODS : A cross-sectional study was conducted in an interdisciplinary outpatient Nephrology Clinic. METHODS : NDD-CKD adults with eGFR ≤60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 under regular treatment. Inflammatory cytokines, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, eGFR (by CKD-Epidemiology collaboration equation)-EPI equation, and body composition assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry were evaluated. Synergistic effects of inflammatory markers with body adiposity on studied cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed by interaction and mediation analysis. RESULTS : The study cohort comprised 241 NDD-CKD patients (54.8% men; eGFR = 29.4 ± 12.9 mL/minute/1.73 m2). Variables evaluated: Inflammatory cytokines were not associated with eGFR and not different among CKD stages. Percentage of total body adiposity (%TBA) was independently associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and HOMA-IR. Waist-to-height ratio was independently associated with TNFα, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1), and HOMA-IR. Interaction analysis showed TNFα, interleukin-8, and MCP1 as independent mediators of the effects of high percentage of total body adiposity and waist-to-height ratio on HOMA-IR (P < .0001). Body adiposity did not associate with sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1. TNFα (β = 0.40) and MCP1 (β = 0.31) were independently associated with sVCAM-1 (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS : In NDD-CKD patients, inflammatory cytokines synergistically mediated the effects of body adiposity, enhancing the cardiometabolic risk. Inflammation was associated with sVCAM-1, but not with eGFR.