The Association of Inadequate and Intensive Prenatal Care With Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Outcomes: A Population-Based Study in Manitoba, Canada.

Affiliation

College of Nursing, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE : Little is known about how prenatal care influences health outcomes in Canada. The objective of this study was to examine the association of prenatal care utilization with maternal, fetal, and infant outcomes in Manitoba.
METHODS : This retrospective cohort study conducted at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy investigated all deliveries of singleton births from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 (N = 67 076). The proportion of women receiving inadequate, intermediate/adequate, and intensive prenatal care was calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association of inadequate and intensive prenatal care with maternal and fetal-infant health outcomes, health care use, and maternal health-related behaviours.
RESULTS : The distribution of prenatal care utilization was 11.6% inadequate, 84.4% intermediate/adequate, and 4.0% intensive. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and maternal health conditions, inadequate prenatal care was associated with increased odds of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), admission to the NICU, postpartum depressive/anxiety disorders, and short interpregnancy interval to next birth. Women with inadequate prenatal care had reduced odds of initiating breastfeeding or having their infant immunized. Intensive prenatal care was associated with reduced odds of stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birth weight and increased odds of postpartum depressive/anxiety disorders, initiation of breastfeeding, and infant immunization.
CONCLUSIONS : Inadequate prenatal care was associated with increased odds of several adverse pregnancy outcomes and lower likelihood of health-related behaviours, whereas intensive prenatal care was associated with reduced odds of some adverse pregnancy outcomes and higher likelihood of health-related behaviours. Ensuring women receive adequate prenatal care may improve pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords

Prenatal care,cohort studies,delivery of health care,health behaviour,pregnancy outcome,