The Diverse Consequences of FOXC1 Deregulation in Cancer.


Leukaemia Biology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4JG, UK. [Email]


Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) is a transcription factor with essential roles in mesenchymal lineage specification and organ development during normal embryogenesis. In keeping with these developmental properties, mutations that impair the activity of FOXC1 result in the heritable Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome and other congenital disorders. Crucially, gain of FOXC1 function is emerging as a recurrent feature of malignancy; FOXC1 overexpression is now documented in more than 16 cancer types, often in association with an unfavorable prognosis. This review explores current evidence for FOXC1 deregulation in cancer and the putative mechanisms by which FOXC1 confers its oncogenic effects.


cellular reprogramming,epigenetics,epithelial-mesenchymal transition,metastasis,pioneer factor,transcription factor,

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